Analisis Pekerjaan – Deskripsi Pekerjaan dan Spesifikasi Pekerjaan

Analisis pekerjaan adalah alat utama dalam manajemen personalia. Dalam metode ini, seorang manajer personalia mencoba mengumpulkan, mensintesis, dan menerapkan informasi yang tersedia mengenai tenaga kerja yang bersangkutan. Seorang manajer personalia harus melakukan analisis pekerjaan untuk menempatkan orang yang tepat pada pekerjaan yang tepat.

Ada dua hasil analisis pekerjaan:

  1. Uraian Tugas
  2. Spesifikasi pekerjaan

Informasi yang dikumpulkan dalam analisis pekerjaan adalah:

  1. Sifat pekerjaan yang dibutuhkan dalam suatu perhatian.
  2. Sifat/ukuran struktur organisasi.
  3. Jenis orang yang dibutuhkan untuk menyesuaikan struktur itu.
  4. Hubungan pekerjaan tersebut dengan pekerjaan lain yang menjadi perhatian.
  5. Jenis kualifikasi dan latar belakang akademis yang dibutuhkan untuk pekerjaan.
  6. Penyediaan kondisi fisik untuk mendukung kegiatan yang bersangkutan. Misalnya- kabin terpisah untuk manajer, kabin khusus untuk supervisor, kondisi sehat untuk pekerja, ruang penyimpanan yang memadai untuk penjaga toko.

Keuntungan Analisis Pekerjaan

  1. Analisis pekerjaan membantu manajer personalia pada saat perekrutan dan pemilihan orang yang tepat pada pekerjaan yang tepat.
  2. Ini membantunya untuk memahami tingkat dan ruang lingkup pelatihan yang diperlukan di bidang itu.
  3. Ini membantu dalam mengevaluasi pekerjaan di mana nilai pekerjaan harus dievaluasi.
  4. Dalam kasus di mana tenaga kerja yang lancar diperlukan dalam perhatian.
  5. Ketika ia harus menghindari tumpang tindih hubungan wewenang-tanggung jawab agar tidak terjadi distorsi dalam rantai komando.
  6. Ini juga membantu untuk menyusun rencana kompensasi bagi karyawan.
  7. Ini juga membantu manajer personalia untuk melakukan penilaian kinerja secara efektif dalam suatu masalah.

Seorang manajer personalia melakukan analisis dalam dua cara:

  1. Uraian Tugas
  2. Spesifikasi pekerjaan
    1. Ini membantu supervisor dalam memberikan pekerjaan kepada bawahan sehingga dia dapat membimbing dan memantau kinerja mereka.
    2. Ini membantu dalam prosedur rekrutmen dan seleksi.
    3. Ini membantu dalam perencanaan tenaga kerja .
    4. Hal ini juga membantu dalam penilaian kinerja.
    5. Hal ini membantu dalam evaluasi pekerjaan untuk memutuskan tentang tingkat remunerasi untuk pekerjaan tertentu.
    6. Ini juga membantu dalam menyusun program pelatihan dan pengembangan.DESKRIPSI PEKERJAAN adalah pernyataan faktual yang terorganisir tentang isi pekerjaan dalam bentuk tugas dan tanggung jawab pekerjaan tertentu. Penyusunan deskripsi pekerjaan sangat penting sebelum lowongan diiklankan. Ini menceritakan secara singkat sifat dan jenis pekerjaan. Jenis dokumen ini bersifat deskriptif dan memuat semua fakta yang berhubungan dengan suatu pekerjaan seperti :
      1. Judul/Penunjukan pekerjaan dan lokasi yang bersangkutan.
      2. Sifat tugas dan operasi yang harus dilakukan dalam pekerjaan itu.
      3. Sifat hubungan wewenang-tanggung jawab.
      4. Kualifikasi yang diperlukan yang dibutuhkan untuk pekerjaan.
      5. Hubungan pekerjaan itu dengan pekerjaan lain yang menjadi perhatian.
      6. Penyediaan kondisi fisik dan kerja atau lingkungan kerja yang diperlukan dalam pelaksanaan pekerjaan itu.

      Keuntungan dari Deskripsi Pekerjaan

  3. SPESIFIKASI JOB adalah pernyataan yang memberitahu kita kualitas manusia minimum yang dapat diterima yang membantu untuk melakukan pekerjaan. Spesifikasi pekerjaan menerjemahkan deskripsi pekerjaan ke dalam kualifikasi manusia sehingga pekerjaan dapat dilakukan dengan cara yang lebih baik. Spesifikasi pekerjaan membantu dalam mempekerjakan orang yang tepat untuk posisi yang sesuai. Isinya adalah:
    1. Jabatan dan penunjukan pekerjaan
    2. Kualifikasi pendidikan untuk gelar itu
    3. Atribut fisik dan atribut terkait lainnya
    4. Kesehatan fisik dan mental
    5. Atribut dan kemampuan khusus
    6. Kedewasaan dan ketergantungan
    7. Hubungan pekerjaan itu dengan pekerjaan lain yang menjadi perhatian.

    Keuntungan dari Spesifikasi Pekerjaan

    1. Ini sangat membantu dalam penyaringan awal dalam prosedur pemilihan.
    2. Ini membantu dalam memberikan pembenaran yang tepat untuk setiap pekerjaan.
    3. Ini juga membantu dalam merancang program pelatihan dan pengembangan.
    4. Ini membantu supervisor untuk konseling dan pemantauan kinerja karyawan.
    5. Ini membantu dalam evaluasi pekerjaan.
    6. Ini membantu manajemen untuk mengambil keputusan mengenai promosi, transfer dan memberikan manfaat tambahan kepada karyawan.

Dari keuntungan di atas, kita dapat membenarkan pentingnya analisis pekerjaan dan produk terkait. Baik deskripsi pekerjaan maupun spesifikasi pekerjaan penting bagi manajer personalia dalam fungsi manajemen personalia. Oleh karena itu, analisis pekerjaan dianggap sebagai alat utama manajemen personalia .

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Artikel Terkait : Tujuan Manajemen Partisipatif


Gardening Tips – Growing Vegetables in Pots

growing vegetables in pots

Whether you want to expand your outdoor vegetable garden, or just need tips on how to increase your indoor vegetable growing, there s lots of inspiration here. This article includes ten of the handiest vegetables to grow in outdoor pots. It also includes a short description of the most useful tools you will need to garden successfully with plants you sow in containers. Finally, some guidelines for taking good care of your vegetable crops and suggestions for planting your new garden.


Cherry Tomatoes: The most common tomato plant in a family, the cherries have a long history as a popular kitchen treat. They can be easily maintained and thrive in pretty much any location provided they receive daily sunlight. Because of their short growing period, cherry tomatoes don’t go through the change from seedling to full growth very quickly. You can, however, leave them under the sun a little longer – perhaps a few weeks – so that they will start to develop a little more. If you want to, you can harvest them right after the cherry tomatoes start to bloom and use the pulverized pulp to add a little sweetness to your recipes.


Sunlight is obviously essential for tomatoes. If you live in an area where it gets really hot during the day, consider planting your tomatoes in small pots – not large, round ones, which are more likely to shade the plant. Keep in mind that during the hot summer months, you might have to move the pots around a bit to keep them out of the intense midday sun. In addition, during cold weather, you can store your tomato plants in glass containers with tightly closed lids, which will keep the heat out.


Vegetables grown in pots should be harvested at the end of each month to guarantee freshness. Any surplus fruit or vegetables should be frozen immediately to keep them fresh. You’ll also want to spread out the plants after harvesting to ensure that they’re not being over-watered. This is why it’s good to start with small pots – you can put some of the waste on top to conserve resources. Keep in mind, though, that any excess fruit or plants should be removed immediately to preserve their flavor.


Once you’re ready to harvest your plants, you have to choose the containers that will allow you to do so properly. Round containers work great – because they have a flat bottom, you won’t run the risk of root rot. Also, they’re big enough to grow fully mature tomatoes in – just ensure that they’re at least three to four inches long to avoid crowding inside. If you want smaller containers that will house just a few plants, you can get ones that are five to six inches square.


Another concern when growing vegetables in pots is frost. Always remember that vegetables like the warmth of a full sun, but they can still perish if you frost the pot before they’re ready. This is why you need to make sure you buy pots that are specifically designed for use in freezing weather. The best way to do this is by buying one that is a few inches thick. If you buy a thinner pot, you might find that the leaves and roots are too frozen to get to the other side of the frosted pot – in which case, you’ll have to start over from the beginning.


A good rule of thumb is that if you’re planning on harvesting your crop in two weeks, start seeds at approximately four to six weeks. If you plan on harvesting your crop in 30 days, start seeds at approximately twenty-two to thirty days. Many people prefer to harvest their seedlings right after they’ve sprouted – but there’s no harm in waiting a few extra days for it to sprout fully if you want. Just ensure that the weather remains at least twenty-five degrees Fahrenheit when you do harvest.


With these simple guidelines in mind, you should be able to maximize the full potential of your seeds, and watch as they mature and thrive for harvest. Keep in mind that the best time to plant vegetables is when you’re growing them in pots, not when you’re just planting anything. This is especially important when growing herbs. Herbs like to mature and bloom in the heat and will perish in cooler temperatures – so keep that in mind.


Make Fertilizer From Household Waste

A lot of people do not know how to make fertilizer from household waste. This is because they don’t know where to find the ingredients needed to make it. Making this kind of fertilizer is actually very easy. It also doesn’t require a lot of effort to do.

make fertilizer from household waste


To make fertilizer from household waste, you have to first gather your materials. You will need lime and wood shavings, sawdust, compost, manure, vegetable scraps, and water. Make sure that everything is in good condition before you start making your mixture.


After you have gathered your materials, you should now get out all the materials you need to make fertilizer. The more you have, the easier it will be. For example, if you only have a truck, you can easily make fertilizer on your own. But if you don’t have one yet, here are the things you need:


* If you want to make fast fertilizer, you can mix it with a liquid fertilizer. Just pour it on a pile and let it set for a few days. Do this when the plant’s leaves are changing colors as this is the best time to make your fertilizer. You can do this every week or every two weeks depending on the development of the plant.


* If you are using a saw to cut your pile of materials into pieces, you should make your cuts at 45 degrees angle. This will make your cuts smoother and easier. Just dip a clean stick into your compound and make your cuts. Try to avoid sharp objects.


* If you don’t want to make fertilizer from household waste, you can also use a commercial product. There are a lot of these products available in the market today. Just search your local area and you should be able to find one that suits your needs. Just be sure that the product is biodegradable so your waste doesn’t end up in the landfill. Remember to ask for the instructions on how to properly handle and dispose of it.


Now that you know how to make fertilizer from household waste, you might want to try another way on how you can solve your lawn and garden problem. What if you can combine your efforts and make one super material? Well, that’s what we call recycling! Just take the waste and convert it into something useful by creating a new product out of it.


How can you make fertilizer from household waste? Use the ideas mentioned above and create your own fertilizer. There are a lot of benefits you can get from doing so. Aside from being able to recycle some of your old household waste materials, you can also earn money out of it. These are just some of the many ways on how you can make fertilizer from household waste. Try it out!


Did you know that you can even make fertilizer from household waste using a compost system? These systems work just like any other fertilizer machines out there. You put your waste in, set the right level, and let it do its job. Soon enough, you’ll have the right nutrients needed in your soil for a healthy plant.


One of the best things about using a composting system like this is the fact that it’s very easy to maintain. All you need to do is to add more materials as needed. And with the use of aerators and other things to stir up the pile, you can easily make fertilizer that can last for years without much effort. Aside from that, you don’t have to worry about the right temperature for your pile. With the use of an air conditioner or heating system inside the storage bin, you won’t have to worry about getting the right temperature for your pile.


Another good thing about these household waste composting systems is the fact that they’re portable. No matter what place you are, you can still use these to make fertilizer. And with the use of wheels, you can easily move your system from one location to another. The only thing that you need to do is to make sure that the wheel doesn’t move too much while carrying the material. Once you’re done with your job, you simply empty the material inside your storage bin. Then, rinse and wipe the bin before putting it back to where you started.


It’s not that hard to make fertilizer from household waste. You don’t have to worry about finding the right nutrients for your plants because you already have them. All you need to do is to pile up your household waste in a container, add some air and let it do its job. Soon enough, you’ll have the right amount of nutrients needed by your plants. So start today and make your garden beautiful and nutrient-rich.


How to Use Narrow Land For Gardening

use narrow land for gardening

Many gardeners choose to use narrow land for their gardens because the soil is more difficult to till with a narrow strip of ground. There are some disadvantages however, when you use this kind of garden and one of them is that your garden looks smaller. If you use the garden for vegetables then this might be OK but if you use plants and flowers that spread then you may find that your small plot of land is inadequate for the amount of plants you want to grow. This article will explain why you should use wider gardens and what plants should be grown in a wider garden.


When you use a small plot of land, it is easy to introduce some plants that you would not normally have. You can introduce shrubs, trees and flowers with ease. You can also grow many other types of plants that are not usually found on a large part of a large piece of land. One of these plants is Java fern which is a very good grass to grow in a small garden. It is an evergreen plant that does well in dry and sandy soils.


When you use narrow strips of land for gardening you can’t introduce any flowering plants to it. Even if you could introduce some you would have to do it through the use of a herbicide. A lot of farmers like to use a broad spectrum herbicide to ensure that their vegetables don’t die or turn yellow. If you use a broad spectrum herbicide you will find that your soil has become very deficient in nutrients and this means that the plants won’t grow very well. You may find that the soil is so poor that the only way to increase the fertility of your soil is by adding topsoil or compost to it.


Some plants won’t grow in a narrow space at all so you have to choose those that will thrive. One good example of this is an herb such as oregano that needs a lot of sunlight. If you put oregano on a wide exposed piece of land you will be in danger of it dying because it needs a lot of sun.


Another plant that needs a lot of sunlight is the cacti. They do fine in a shady place but if you plant them in a narrow piece of land they will not thrive. Make sure that the area you are planting your cacti in has plenty of drainage because the soil in most areas is not very moist. This means that your cacti will need to be planted in a container.


Don’t plant your cacti into heavy clay soil because clay tends to break down quickly. It is also unwise to use too much water when you are first planting cacti. If you use too much water then the roots of the cactus will rot. You need to water your cactus only every couple of days and keep the soil damp. It’s a good idea to put a tray beneath the soil so that all the water drains out.


If you have a narrow piece of land, you might consider growing tomatoes, peppers or herbs. These can all do well in a small pot so try planting them as a crop in a small area. They don’t require a lot of attention and they do very well in containers.


When you are selecting plants for your garden, you need to think about practicality as well as beauty. Don’t plant something that will die out after a few years. Instead, select something that you can fix and will grow slowly. Try and make sure the plants you choose are not highly aromatic. The aroma from the flowers will be enough to cover up any defects. Choose plants that you can easily grow and that you will be able to care for.


Practice Your Home Gardening Hobby

home gardening hobby

So you want to start a home gardening hobby? It’s fun! It also lets you use your imagination and creativity. There are many different kinds of gardening that you can do at home, from potting to borders, planting to landscaping and many more. Here are a few ideas for starting your home gardening hobby.


This is my favorite among the different kinds of gardens I do. I call it my “cartoon vector illustration” theme. I have a border going up along the right side of the room and a border going down the left side. I have some potted plants on the bottom row of the wheelbarrows, a white background for the rest of the scene and boy characters in black and white drawing all over the place. This looks so much like my real job that I sometimes feel like I’m just working from home, but hey, I’m working!


Another thing I like is when I put on my “boy set” hat and draw shapes and figures outside the house onto my white background. Sometimes I put a border around the outside of the scene, other times I don’t. It’s really up to me and what I find interesting or appealing to me. I have a whole room dedicated to this hobby. My son has taken over and now tries to make things better and organized as far as the garden bedding is concerned, although he does have some input into the layout, mostly by telling me what he doesn’t like about things.


Here’s one I do often. I put two strips of colored construction paper together and draw different scenes on each one. I draw a boy standing by a pond with a watering can and a frog sitting next to him. Next I draw a frog in a house by a ladder, another boy holding a watering can, and a boy sitting at a table with a banana. I put all of these on my white background and then do a straight layout of the panels, following the top left to right placement of the cartoon illustrations.


Here’s one I often do when I have young children. I am always reminded of an old Walt Disney cartoon where a cowboy had a horse that sat on a wheel, with a pot of dirt on the wheel and hay on a stick. The child across from me likes to imagine the dirt has worms in it and every time the cowboy or his equine friend goes by, the little horse digs in the dirt and pulls out a worm. I’ve made copies of this on my white boards. I put a border over the panels, and I draw a black circle over each one.


A while ago, I made a copy of a home gardening cartoon for my daughter’s birthday. She thought it was quite cute, so I decided to make a copy of it for her. I chose a picture of two girls in their birthday suits, with one of them carrying a potted plant on their backs. I decided to use the same circle for the border on the drawing, and also put a border over each panel. Then I decided to make a border under the child’s shoe, and I put a few more dots in the holes for the handles of the potted plant. Once she finished her drawing, she put the plant on a table and attached a cute bow on the top.


Here’s a home gardening hobby I have practiced lately. Instead of using a soil garden like I did in the cartoon, I am using gravel to plant my seeds. This is a little more work, but it is much nicer on the eyes. When I do this, I use the garden part of the week and then do the home gardening only when I have a bit of free time. This allows me to really enjoy the gardening I do and also to spend time with my kids. It is nice to be able to go out into my garden, spend a nice evening with my plants, and then come back in peace, knowing that I have done something nice for our home.


There are many other ways to enjoy your hobby, but I think these are a few things you may try if you are looking to practice your home gardening hobby. You can always buy books or magazines on how to do things, but that is not always necessary. There is really no right or wrong way to practice, just things you enjoy.


Patron Survey of Acceptable Wait Times at Transit Bus Stops

Transit Bus

The wait time of bus patrons at bus stops is one of Transit Bus several measures for assessing reliability of transit services, especially in urban areas. The uncertainty associated with Transit Bus waiting affects bus patrons’ perception of quali of the service provided. Studies in this subject area have therefore been of interest to transit service agencies and officials. This paper presents the findings of a study conducted to determine patrons’ maximum acceptable wait times (beyond the scheduled arrival time) at bus stops in an urban area. In all, 3387 bus patrons at 71 selected bus stops were surveyed over a period of 9 months. The results of the survey showed that the least acceptable wait time beyond the scheduled arrival time was 1 minute, while the maximum acceptable wait time was reported to be 20 minutes. Also, only one-third (33%) of the total number of patrons surveyed were willing to wait up to 5 minutes beyond the scheduled arrival time of buses. In addition, patrons are willing to wait longer in warm weather. On average, white patrons were found to have the least maximum acceptable wait times, followed by Hispanics, Asians, and then Blacks.

Urban areas typically have several modes of transportation, including bus transit. Transit buses offer short distance transportation between bus stops on different routes, especially in dense urban areas. Transit agencies aim at keeping patrons satisfied by improving on-time arrivals at bus stops and reducing passenger wait times. Bus transit travel time and wait times are two of the critical factors that influence patrons’ decision to use one mode of transportation over another. If transit buses arrive at scheduled times, patrons are less likely to have the need to find alternative mode(s) of transportation. However, if buses are chronically late at bus stops, patrons may feel that the bus system is unreliable and may most likely seek alternative modes of transportation.

Several studies have also shown that patrons waiting at a bus stop perceive wait time to be three times more bothersome than the time spent riding on the bus. Consequently, travelers are more likely to change their initial transportation mode choice to another in order to decrease their wait time. It is therefore necessary to be able to determine the maximum acceptable wait time of patrons in order to identify appropriate bus headways, reduce dwell times, and provide adequate allocation of bus stops along a route. This study aimed at determining patrons’ maximum acceptable wait times beyond the schedule arrival time at bus stops in Washington, DC.


Polyethylene Terephthalate Fibre Reinforced Concrete as a Partial Cement Replacement

Polyethylene Terephthalate

Solid waste disposal is an alarming problem in most African countries. Plastic wastes like Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles and powdered wastes like fly ash are severely persisting environmental hazards. They are Polyethylene Terephthalate brutally polluting the water bodies, landfills, as well as the atmosphere. The construction industry has been working towards improving concrete quality by developing alternative methods like partial cement replacement with different pozzolanic elements as well as using waste fibrous materials. Fly ash and PET bottle fibres are two common waste materials that can be used. This article is a part of a research that studied the combined effects of the addition of PET bottle fibres and fly ash (as a partial cement replacement) on the structural performance of concrete. From a purely engineering point of view, the research results indicate that the utilization and incorporation of PET and fly ash wastes in the construction industry are a viable solution to make concrete quality better. This article presents, beyond the engineering properties and experimental works, the economic and environmental advantages of the addition of these waste materials to the conventional concrete mixture. The addition of PET bottle fibres and fly ash resulted in positive cost implications providing a production cost reduction of 19% over the conventional concrete mixture. The removal of these materials from the environment also showed reduction of the emission of toxic elements to landfills and water bodies that put human, animal and plant lives in danger.

Solid waste disposal is an alarming environmental problem in most African countries. Plastic wastes like Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles and powdered wastes like fly ash are severely persisting environmental challenges. They are obnoxiously polluting the water bodies, landfills, as well as the atmosphere. This in turn destroys human, animal and plant lives. Recently studies are being done regarding using waste materials in concrete mixes both to improve its quality as well as to benefit the environment. The construction industry has been working towards minimizing the cement usage and improving concrete quality by developing alternative methods like partial cement replacement with different pozzolanic elements as well as using waste fibrous materials. Fly ash and PET bottle fibres are two of the common waste materials that are currently polluting the environment. This article is a part of a research that studied the combined effects of the addition of PET bottle fibres and fly ash (as a partial cement replacement) on the structural performance of concrete. The study investigated the effects of the addition of PET bottles and fly ash on the engineering properties and flexural performance of concrete. PET bottles with an aspect ratio of 50 (100 mm length and 2 mm width) and fly ash were added to the concrete mix at different percentages and optimized as per the experimental work results. The optimized percentages of PET bottle fibres and fly ash are 1.5% and 27.5% by weight of concrete respectively [1] and [2]. From a purely engineering point of view, these results indicate that the utilization and incorporation of PET and fly ash wastes for the improvement of concrete quality are a move in the right direction and are highly recommended. However, other considerations like cost and environmental advantages should be assessed before the materials are used widely.

The environmental and economic advantages of waste minimization and recycling are undeniable as both the environment and the construction industry benefit in terms of pollution and cost reduction respectively. A study by [3] looked into the effects of recycling waste materials (glass, plastic and demolished concrete) and using them in a concrete mix. Alongside the engineering properties, the results of the study showed that there was a significant reduction in cost of waste disposal and construction expenses. Another study by [4] also studied the early age strength development of concrete with the addition of Activator Blast Furnace Slag. The results of this study revealed that the development of early age strength of concrete contributed to the reduction of construction period. This in turn had an economic advantage. The experimental results of compressive strength and sorptivity of PET fibre reinforced concrete were given by [5]. Fibres used were made from plastic bottle wastes which are non-biodegradable. The study presented that the addition of waste materials reduced the cost of the plastic fibre reinforced concrete while at the same time resolving the problem of solid waste disposal. It was reported by [6] that the partial cement replacement of concrete using fly ash as a replacing material reduced construction and production costs. The study also underscored that concrete modified with fly ash was more cost effective compared to the conventional ordinary Portland cement concrete.

The other significant benefit of modifying concrete with waste materials is reducing the risks the environment is facing. PET bottles are one of the major non-biodegradable plastic wastes that are considered to be dangerous for the environment. Fly ash again is a by-product of burning coal for energy generation. Because of the chemical it consists, it negatively affects soil, plants, atmosphere and the environment in general if not disposed properly. As this study is proposing to use these products for construction, it is definitely contributing to the benefit of saving the environment from the undesirable effects it is facing.

This article presents, beyond the engineering properties and experimental works, the combined economic and environmental advantages of the addition of PET bottle fibres and fly ash to the conventional concrete mixture. By doing so, it presents the necessary information for further researchers as well as individuals or companies that might want to use these materials in concrete production.


Basic guidelines and future directions

Basic guidelines and future directions in First year reflections opens the second volume of the Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, and with this issue begins our second year of publication. The aim of this editorial is to evaluate the 2008 activities, by presenting the members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers of the journal, as well as by reflecting results of quality, prestige and visibility of the journal, which are derived from the perception of the authors, who have sent us their work. Finally, the main conclusions are drawn and future lines of research for the second volume are presented.

One year after publishing the first editorial (Fernandez et al., 2008), we started the second volume presenting to all the stakeholders of the journal our particular vision regarding the journal’s evolution during the first year. In addition, guidelines and goals for this new volume are provided, with the aim of emphasizing the social responsibility of this open-access scientific publication, like other journals (e.g., Simo & Sallan, 2008) of maximum transparency to the professional and academic community.

The new open-access journals include four basic axes (Simo et al., 2006) that are essential in the early years and should be stimulated and constantly improved by their editorial policy: quality, prestige, social responsibility and economic viability. In fact, these aspects are the basic guidelines that we followed during the first volume and they will be further detailed in the following sections.

In order to assess some of the above mentioned aspects, we have relied on the journal’s own data (i.e., review times, number of manuscripts received, number of accepted manuscripts), the composition of the editorial board, the board of reviewers, and a satisfaction survey conducted with the authors who have submitted an article for review during 2008.


A typological approach

A typological approach in Sustainable operations management: discusses the nature of sustainability and sustainable development as they relate to operations management. It proposes a typology for sustainable operations management that is based on the life cycle stages of a product and the three dimensions of corporate social responsibility. The aim is to show how this typology development could provide a useful approach to integrating the diverse strands of sustainability in operations, using industrial ecology and carbon neutrality as examples. It does this by providing a focused subset of environmental concerns for an industrial ecology approach, and some research propositions for the issue of carbon neutrality.

Sustainability and sustainable development are terms that have become prominent in everyday life over recent years, particularly associated with the debates around global warming and corporate social responsibility. These themes have gained increased profile in such recent films as An Inconvenient Truth (Bender & David, 2006) and The Corporation (Achbar & Simpson, 2003). This paper aims to make an initial (and modest) attempt to integrate these themes as they relate to operations management, and to generate discussion for its future development. The typology also aims to help managers adopt an integrated approach to sustainable operations.

Operations management (OM) has been defined, in a recent popular textbook (Chase, Jacobs, & Aquilano, 2006) as “the design, operation, and improvement of the systems that create and deliver the firm’s primary products and services” (2006: 9). Similarly, an older text (Constable & New, 1976) describes OM as being “concerned with the management of the physical resources required for production, whether the product be a manufactured item or a service” (1976:1). The efficient management of these resources and systems is important because the number of people employed in this area is likely to exceed that in other functional areas and, as a consequence, a large proportion of total spending is consumed in the operations area. Also in most manufacturing firms, “about 80 percent of total capital investment will be in the operations area” (1976:1). The current concern for the environment and increased awareness of global warming means the sustainable management of these resources and systems has become very important. Hawken et al. (1999) highlight the manifest resource inefficiency of many of the current products and production processes and claim that about one percent of all material that originates at the top of the supply chain serving the United States remains in use six months after sale of the products containing it (Hawken, Lovins, & Lovins, 1999). This paper makes an attempt to integrate much recent work on sustainability in the OM area into a typology that might be useful for researchers and practitioners. This paper considers the issues of sustainability and sustainable development in the management literature, and then considers briefly how business has adopted these ideas through the notions of corporate social responsibility (the triple bottom line) and corporate sustainability. The paper then extends this debate to the operations management field and how the focus has changed from environmental operations management to, more recently, sustainable operations and sustainable supply chain. The paper then attempts to develop a typology based on the elements of life cycle analysis and the triple bottom line.


A fuzzy pert approach

A fuzzy pert approach to evaluate plant construction project scheduling risk under uncertain resources capacity at A plant construction project always involves lots of activities. Precise information about the activities duration is unfortunately unavailable due to the uncertain resources capacity. The fuzzy program evaluation and review technique (PERT) has been widely applied to solve the fuzzy project scheduling problem. This paper presents an extended fuzzy PERT approach with four major improvement aspects to support the construction project scheduling management: 1) Evaluate operation fuzzy times based on available working volumes, resources quantity and fuzzy capacity of resources, 2) Adopting a maximal alpha_i-level cut method to compare the fuzzy precedent activities times to determine the reasonable earliest starting times of each activity, 3) Using fuzzy algebra method instead of fuzzy subtraction method to compute the fuzzy latest starting times and 4) Developing a project scheduling risk index (PSRI) to assist the decision maker to evaluate the project scheduling risk. Simulations experiments are conducted and demonstrated satisfactory results.

The plant construction project scheduling is not easy to handle due to various uncertain factors. For example the resources capacity is an important uncertain. Its uncertainty will impact the project scheduling. In industrial practice the decision makers usually use crisp value to estimate the project time while they bid a potential project. But when they get the orders or contracts, frequently they can’t complete construction on time and the resulting cost always exceeds original expectations. How to evaluate the construction project scheduling risk is an important problem.

Fuzzy PERT (program evaluation review techniques) has been widely used to describe the uncertain task durations and scheduling of real industrial practice in project management. There are vast literatures devoted to research about the fuzzy PERT theories and applications. Mon et al. (1995) applied fuzzy distributions on project management to analysis schedule and cost. Chanas, S. & Zielinski, P. (2001) analysis critical patch in the network with fuzzy activity times. Dubois et al. (2003a) studied on latest starting times and floats in activity networks with ill-known durations. Dubois et al. (2003b) also planed fuzzy scheduling with incomplete knowledge. Slyetsov et al. (2003) researched the fuzzy temporal characteristics of operations for project management based on the network models. Wang (1999) developed a fuzzy set approach to schedule product development projects with temporal information. Wang (2002) used a fuzzy project scheduling approach to minimize schedule risk for product development. Wang (2004) applied a genetic algorithm for solving the problem under the objective of maximizing the worst case scheduling. Nezhad et al. (2008) proposed a fuzzy number maximum operator approximation and its application in fuzzy shop scheduling. However, there are still several unsolved issues in fuzzy PERT applications:

•The operation time of each activity is seldom available even using fuzzy number in construction project. If decision makers directly assume operation times of activities to plan the scheduling of project, the result of scheduling may be imprecise.

•There are many ranking methods of fuzzy numbers. However a suitable method to compute the earliest starting times of each activity in project network has not developed yet.

•Fuzzy subtraction method to compute the fuzzy latest starting times may get the unreasonable negative values of times.

•It is worth developing a project scheduling risk index (PSRI) to assist the decision maker to evaluate scheduling risk while they bid a potential construction project.

In coping with the aforementioned issues, this paper presents an extended fuzzy PERT approach with four major improvement aspects to support the project scheduling management:

1) Evaluate operation fuzzy times based on available working volumes, resources quantity and fuzzy capacity of resources,

2) Adopting a maximal a i-level cut method to compare the fuzzy precedent activities times to determine the reasonable earliest starting times of each activity,

3) Using fuzzy algebra method instead of fuzzy subtraction method to compute the fuzzy latest starting times and

4) Developing an index PSRI to assist the decision makers to evaluate the project scheduling risk.